Oracle Database Database Reference, 19c
Copyright © 2002, 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Primary Authors: Bert Rich, Mary Beth Roeser
Contributing Authors: David McDermid, Sarika Surampudi
Contributors: Nipun Agarwal, Rick Anderson, Mark Bauer, Neerja Bhatt, Tudor Bosman, George Candea,
Wilson Chan, Sumanta Chatterjee, Eugene Chong, Connie Dialeris Green, Harvey Eneman, Bruce Ernst, Ira
Greenberg, Steve Harris, Thuvan Hoang, Lilian Hobbs, Namit Jain, Hakkan Jakobsson, Bob Jenkins, Mark
Johnson, Jonathan Klein, Sushil Kumar, Tirthankar Lahiri, Bill Lee, Yunrui Li, Juan Loaiza, Rich Long, Diana
Lorentz, Catherine Luu, Neil MacNaughton, Ari Mozes, Gopal Mulagund, Subramanian Muralidhar, Ravi
Murthy, Karuna Muthiah, Arvind Nithrakashyap, Ronald Obermarck, Kant Patel, Christopher Racicot, Mark
Ramacher, Shankar Raman, Suvendu Ray, Ann Rhee, Kathy Rich, Vivian Schupmann, Debbie Steiner, Malai
Stalin, Seema Sundara, Juan Tellez, Alex Tsukerman, Kothanda Umamageswaran, Randy Urbano, Steve
Vivian, Eric Voss, Tak Wang, Steve Wertheimer, Andy Witkowski, Daniel Wong, Graham Wood, Brian Wright,
Aravind Yalamanchi, Qin Yu, Mohamed Ziauddin
This software and related documentation are provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on
use and disclosure and are protected by intellectual property laws. Except as expressly permitted in your
license agreement or allowed by law, you may not use, copy, reproduce, translate, broadcast, modify,
license, transmit, distribute, exhibit, perform, publish, or display any part, in any form, or by any means.
Reverse engineering, disassembly, or decompilation of this software, unless required by law for
interoperability, is prohibited.
The information contained herein is subject to change without notice and is not warranted to be error-free. If
you find any errors, please report them to us in writing.
If this is software or related documentation that is delivered to the U.S. Government or anyone licensing it on
behalf of the U.S. Government, then the following notice is applicable:
U.S. GOVERNMENT END USERS: Oracle programs, including any operating system, integrated software,
any programs installed on the hardware, and/or documentation, delivered to U.S. Government end users are
"commercial computer software" pursuant to the applicable Federal Acquisition Regulation and agency-
specific supplemental regulations. As such, use, duplication, disclosure, modification, and adaptation of the
programs, including any operating system, integrated software, any programs installed on the hardware,
and/or documentation, shall be subject to license terms and license restrictions applicable to the programs.
No other rights are granted to the U.S. Government.
This software or hardware is developed for general use in a variety of information management applications.
It is not developed or intended for use in any inherently dangerous applications, including applications that
may create a risk of personal injury. If you use this software or hardware in dangerous applications, then you
shall be responsible to take all appropriate fail-safe, backup, redundancy, and other measures to ensure its
safe use. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates disclaim any liability for any damages caused by use of this
software or hardware in dangerous applications.
Oracle and Java are registered trademarks of Oracle and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of
their respective owners.
Intel and Intel Xeon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation. All SPARC trademarks are
used under license and are trademarks or registered trademarks of SPARC International, Inc. AMD, Opteron,
the AMD logo, and the AMD Opteron logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Advanced Micro
Devices. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group.
This software or hardware and documentation may provide access to or information about content, products,
and services from third parties. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates are not responsible for and expressly
disclaim all warranties of any kind with respect to third-party content, products, and services unless otherwise
set forth in an applicable agreement between you and Oracle. Oracle Corporation and its affiliates will not be
responsible for any loss, costs, or damages incurred due to your access to or use of third-party content,
products, or services, except as set forth in an applicable agreement between you and Oracle.